Biodiesel:

Biodiesel is a clean fuel produced by a chemical reaction of a natural vegetable oil or animal fats with a simple catalyst such as methanol. It can be used either as unedited or in a mixture of any proportion of diesel fuel in diesel engines without the need of any moderation to them. Also, the energy content of biodiesel is approximately 10% less than diesel fuel, however, the efficiency is similar the conventional diesel.

It was the 1900 world trade fair in Paris, when Dr.Rudolf Diesel presented his innovative machine which was running on natural oil (from peanuts). His statement in time was
ď Diesel engines can be supplied with natural oils and it would mean so much to the development of agriculture in countries that use diesel engines for these purposes Ē.
This quotation proved to be so real in present time as it meant also in the late century.
Even during the period of World War II, Axis had problems with the supply of diesel fuels so they turned to the scientists and their research to replace diesel with other alternative fuels, also from natural vegetable oils.

Eventually, diesel fuel was established since it had sufficiency in amounts of raw material but also because it was the production was simpler and more economic than natural oils.
Although, the current energy field is seeking even more alternative sources of energy. For this reason, European Community anticipating itís economic emancipation and improvement of the ecosystem, proceed with the obligatory consumption of a certain amount of biofuels from all states-members of the European Community .

Other forces behind the increasing production of biodiesel contain the low values of gas products of the petrochemical industry, environmental concerns with the continuous use of diesel (petroleum), one wide desire for real renewable fuels from viable sources, and the recognition of significant higher costs of circles of life for other alternative fuels.

Emissions:

Biodiesel reduces the health risks associated eith petroleum diesel. Biodiesel emissions show decreased levels of PAH and nitrited PAH compounds, which have been identified as potential cancer causing compounds. In the recent testing with B100, PAH compounds were reduced by 75 to 85 percent, with the exception of benzo(a)anthracene, which was reduced by roughly 50%. Targeted nPAH compounds were also reduced dramatically with biodiesel fuel, with 2-nitrofluorene and 1-nitropyrene reduced by 90% and the rest of the nPAH compounds reduced to only trace levels.

The report below shows the following results when neat biodiesel (B100) and 20% biodiesel (B20) are used to power unmodified engines, when compared to petroleum diesel:

Emission type ¬100 ¬20
Regulated - 67% - 20%
Total unburned hydrocarbons - 48% - 12%
Carbon monoxide - 47% - 12%
Particulate matter    
Non regulated    
Sulfates - 100% - 20%
PAH (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) - 80% - 13%
nPAH (Nitrated PAHís) - 90% - 50%
Ozone potential of speciated HC - 50% - 10%

The study shows more reductions per gallon of biodiesel burned when biodiesel is used at levels around 20% biodiesel (B20), making B20 or lower blends optimal for overall emissions benefits for air sheds who want to reduce particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and ozone related unburned hydrocarbons emissions.

Biodiesel has a closed carbon cycle, dramatically reducing CO2. In addition, biodiesel is produced only from the oil contained in the plant seed and oil is Mother Natureís way of storing energy so it is already intrinsically high in energy content.

Performance:

Biodiesel has the highest energy content (120.000 BTUs per gallon) of any alternative fuel. Biodiesel has significantly improved lubricity, which can decrease maintenance costs and reduce engine wear.
A flash point of over 300oF makes it much safer to use, store and handle than diesel, gasoline, or other gaseous fuels .
An implementing technology for 90% Nox reductions, while biodiesel in unmodified diesel does not effect Nox, is an extremely high lubricity, high cetane, virtually zero sulfur fuel.
Compared to todayís engines, these new diesel engine and after-treatment systems will provide: Over 90% reduction in Nox emissions
Over 90% reduction in particulate emissions.

The Kioto Protocol:

What is the purpose of the Kioto Protocol and when will it be implemented?

  • The Kioto Protocol was adopted on December 11, 1997. The Protocol was supposed to become the major tool to maintain the climatic changes because of the restricted actions-goals which sets for the more developed countries. With the validly of the Protocol, the countries which we have mentioned, are obliged to reduce the average emissions of the greenhouse by 5% between 2008-2012.
  • However, the Kioto Protocol has now been in validly, but to work efficiently two major conditions must be kept: Not less than 55 countries must confirm the condition. These 55 countries should incorporate with the industry developed countries as they appear in the certain catalogue and together they represent non less than the 55% of total emissions of carbon monoxide.

Are emissions the cause of severe climatic changes?

Almost all meteor analysts agree that these emissions are the one responsible for the change in earthís climate and the sequences are severe: heavy weather, desolation, floats of coastal areas e.t.c. The number one guilty in charge is carbon monoxide, which is an inevitable byproduct of burned fuels.

How can we reduce carbon monoxide emissions?
The basic sectors are three:

  • Industry
  • Transport
  • Consumers

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